After puberty, a woman’s breast consists of fat, connective tissue, and thousands of lobules, tiny glands that produce milk for breastfeeding. Tiny tubes, or ducts, carry the milk toward the nipple.
In cancer, the body’s cells multiply uncontrollably. It is the excessive cell growth that causes cancer.
Breast cancer can be:
- Ductal carcinoma: This begins in the milk duct and is the most common type.
- Lobular carcinoma: This starts in the lobules.
Invasive breast cancer is when the cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts and invade nearby tissue, increasing the chance of spreading to other parts of the body.
Non-invasive breast cancer is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not broken out. However, these cells can eventually develop into invasive breast cancer.
What causes thyroid cancer?
Experts don’t know what causes thyroid cancer. But like other cancers, changes in the DNA of your cells seem to play a role. These DNA changes may include changes that are inherited as well as those that happen as you get older.
People who have been exposed to a lot of radiation have a greater chance of getting thyroid cancer.
A dental X-ray now and then will not increase your chance of getting thyroid cancer. But past radiation treatment of your head, neck, or chest (especially during childhood) can put you at risk of getting thyroid cancer.
Cancer is defined as the uncontrollable growth of cells that invade and cause damage to surrounding tissue. Oral cancer appears as a growth or sore in the mouth that does not go away. Oral cancer, which includes cancers of the lips, tongue, cheeks, the floor of the mouth, hard and soft palate, sinuses, and pharynx (throat), can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated early.
What Are the Symptoms of Oral Cancer?
The most common symptoms of oral cancer include:
- Swellings/thickenings, lumps or bumps, rough spots/crusts/or eroded areas on the lips, gums, or other areas inside the mouth
- The development of velvety white, red, or speckled (white and red) patches in the mouth
- Unexplained bleeding in the mouth
- Unexplained numbness, loss of feeling, or pain/tenderness in any area of the face, mouth, or neck
Oral Tongue Cancer
- A lump on the side of the tongue that touches the teeth (lateral side)
- The lump often looks like an ulcer and is grayish-pink to red in color
- The lump bleeds easily if bitten or touched
The base of Tongue Cancer
- The tumor is often difficult to see in the early stages so it is usually diagnosed when it is larger
- There are few symptoms in the early stages
- In later stages, cancer may cause pain, a sense of fullness in the throat, difficulty swallowing, the feeling of a lump in the neck or throat, voice changes or ear pain
Causes and Risk Factors
Some people develop cancer of the tongue with no risk factors. The cancer is more common in older age groups, age 40 and up, although it may be found in young people. It is twice as common in men. Other risk factors are:
- Smoking and drinking alcohol. Smokers are five times more likely to develop tongue cancer than nonsmokers.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease. HPV 16 and HPV 18 increase the risk of tongue cancer
- African-American men are at greater risk than Caucasians
The most common symptoms of oesophageal cancer include:
- difficulty swallowing – feeling that your food is sticking in your throat or chest
- weight loss
- food coming back up before reaching the stomach (regurgitation) or being sick (vomiting)
- pain when swallowing
- indigestion or heartburn that doesn’t go away
- a cough
- a hoarse voice – caused by pressure on the nerve that supplies the voice box
- dull pain or discomfort behind the breastbone or in the back.
There are other conditions that can cause these symptoms, but you should always have them checked out by your doctor.