A cataract is a loss of transparency or clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye. As one age, chemical changes occur in the lens that makes it less transparent. The loss of transparency may be so mild vision is hardly affected or so severe that no shapes or movements are seen, but only light is perceived. When the lens gets cloudy enough to obstruct vision significantly then cataract surgery is performed. Glasses or contact lenses cannot sharpen your vision if a cataract is at the advanced stage.
Cataract Surgery today has become a refractive surgery also. That is following the removal of cataract patient can choose to get rid of glasses to a various degree by choosing an appropriate intraocular lens (Eg: Toric/Multifocal/Multifocal Toric) to be implanted at the time of Cataract Surgery.
Planning for Surgery
What exactly is customized cataract surgery ?.
Current day trend is not merely making patient see better after cataract surgery but to make him/her see well even without glasses. Patient’s lifestyle and occupational needs are thoroughly taken into account before choosing an intraocular lens to be implanted at the time of cataract surgery, optimizing postoperative vision of the patient.
You develop them when protein builds up in the lens of your eye and makes it cloudy. This keeps light from passing through clearly. It can cause you to lose some of your eyesight. There are different types of cataracts. They include:
- Age-related. These form as you get older.
- Congenital. This is what doctors call it when babies are born with cataracts. They may be caused by infection, injury, or poor development in the womb. Or, they can form in childhood.
- Secondary. These happen as a result of other medical conditions, like diabetes. They can also result from being around toxic substances, ultraviolet light, or radiation, or from taking medicines such as corticosteroids or diuretics.
- Traumatic. These form after an injury to the eye.
Other things that can raise your chances of getting cataracts include cigarette smoke, air pollution, and heavy drinking.
Cataracts usually form slowly. You may not know you have them until they start to block light. Then you might notice:
- A vision that’s cloudy, blurry, foggy, or filmy
- See near things without glasses
- Changes in the way you see color
- Problems driving at night (glare from oncoming headlights, for example)
- Problems with glare during the day
- Double vision in the affected eye
- The trouble with eyeglasses or contact lenses not working well
Only surgery is the treatment once cataract is diagnosed
Types of surgery
- Phacoemulsification (PKE)
- Micro-Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS)
- SICS (Small Incision Cataract Surgery)(Sutureless)
- Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE)
Type of surgery depends upon patients need and stage of cataract
Types of intraocular lenses:-
Monofocal: glasses needed for reading
Multifocal: least need for glasses
Toric: those who have astigmatism. Needs glasses for reading
It is the commonly chosen surgery method by patients and doctors
Phacoemulsification cataract surgery is a procedure in which an ultrasonic device is used to break up and then remove a cloudy lens, or cataract, from the eye to improve vision. The insertion of an intraocular lens (IOL) usually immediately follows phacoemulsification.