- The appendix is a small, worm-like, tubular appendage attached to the cecum of the colon.
- Appendicitis occurs when the appendix becomes blocked, and bacteria invade and infect the wall of the appendix.
- The most common complications of appendicitis are rupture, abscess, and peritonitis.
The most common signs and symptoms of appendicitis in adults and children are
- abdominal pain,
- loss of appetite,
- nausea and vomiting,
- fever, and
- abdominal tenderness.
What is a hernia?
A bulging of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
A hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. For example, the intestines may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
Factors that strain your body and may cause a hernia, especially if your muscles are weak, include:
- being pregnant, which puts pressure on your abdomen
- being constipated, which causes you to strain when having a bowel movement
- lifting heavy weight
- fluid in the abdomen, or ascites
- suddenly gaining weight
- surgery in the area
- persistent coughing or sneezing
What are piles?
Piles can be of various sizes and may be internal (inside the anus) or external ones (outside the anus). Typically, internal piles occur from 2 to 4cm above the opening of the anus. External piles (perianal hematoma) occur on the outside edge of the anus. The internal ones are much more common.
An individual with piles may experience the following symptoms:6
- A hard lump may be felt around the anus. It consists of coagulated blood, called a thrombosed external hemorrhoid. This can be painful
- After going to the toilet, a feeling that the bowels are still full
- Bright red blood after a bowel movement
- Itchiness around the anus
- Mucus discharge when emptying the bowels
- Pain while defecating
- The area around the anus may be red and sore.
Stapled hemorrhoidectomy, also known as stapled hemorrhoidopexy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of abnormally enlarged hemorrhoidal tissue, followed by the repositioning of the remaining hemorrhoidal tissue back to its normal anatomic position. Severe cases of hemorrhoidal prolapse will normally require surgery. Newer surgical procedures include stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) and procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH). Both STARR and PPH are contraindicated in persons with either enterocele or anismus.
Anal fissure definition and facts
- Anal fissures are cracks or tears in the anus and anal canal. They may be acute or chronic.
- Anal fissures are caused primarily by trauma, but several non-traumatic diseases are associated with anal fissures and should be suspected if fissures occur in unusual locations.
- The primary symptom of anal fissures is pain during and following bowel movements. Other symptoms that may occur are:
- itching, and a
- malodorous discharge.
- Anal fissures are diagnosed and evaluated by visual inspection of the anus and anal canal.
Your gallbladder is a four-inch, pear-shaped organ. It’s positioned under your liver in the upper-right section of your abdomen. The gallbladder stores bile, a combination of fluids, fat, and cholesterol. Bile helps break down fat from food in your intestine. The gallbladder delivers bile into the small intestine. This allows fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients to be more easily absorbed into the bloodstream.